Amrita School of Dentistry Kochi is a renowned dental institution located in Kerala. Established in 2003, the college offers its students a high-quality education and training, laying the groundwork for their successful careers in dentistry. A college is a great option for students who want to study dentistry because of its cutting-edge facilities, highly qualified faculty, dedicated research wing, and international partnerships. The college is affiliated with Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (a deemed University) and also has recognition from the National Dental Commission
The college is equipped with cutting-edge resources, such as a contemporary library, well-stocked labs, lecture halls, clinical facilities, research facilities, and dorm rooms for both male and female students. To give its students a high-quality education and training, the college combines theoretical and practical teaching techniques, making use of lectures, seminars, workshops, hands-on training, and clinical experiences.
There are partnerships and exchange programs between the Amrita School of Dentistry and a number of foreign universities and organizations. For student exchange programs, faculty exchange programs, research collaborations, and training programs, the college has signed Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) with universities in the USA, UK, Australia, and other nations.
The Amrita School of Dentistry offers graduates the opportunity to work in a variety of dental settings, including private practice, public health organizations, academic and research institutions, and government service. Students can get career advice and job placement assistance from the college’s dedicated placement cell.
- 1 Highlights
- 2 Affiliation, Recognition, and Aid Status
- 3 Facilities
- 4 Departments
- 5 Faculty and Staff
- 6 Courses Offered And Seat Intake
- 7 BDS Internship
- 8 BDS Course Syllabus
- 9 Fees Structure
- 10 BDS Eligibility Criteria
- 11 NEET UG Cut Off
- 12 MDS Eligibility Criteria
- 13 NEET MDS Cut-Off 2023
- 14 Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi – Cut Off 2022 (AIQ Quota)
- 16 MCC Counselling Fee
- 17 Contact Details
- 18 Ranking & Reputation
- 19 Documents Required
- 20 NEET College Predictors
- 21 NEET Rank Predictors
- 22 Expert Admission Consultants
- 23 Frequently Asked Question
- 24 Q: What are the programs offered by the Amrita School of Dentistry?
- 25 Q: What is the duration of the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry?
- 26 Q: What is the eligibility criteria for admission to the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry?
- 27 Q: How is the selection process for admission to the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry?
- 28 Q: Does Amrita School of Dentistry have its own dental hospital?
- 29 Q: What kind of research activities are undertaken by Amrita School of Dentistry?
- 30 Q: What kind of clinical exposure do students get at Amrita School of Dentistry?
- 31 Q: What kind of extracurricular activities are available for students at Amrita School of Dentistry?
|Name of Institute||Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi|
|Popular Name||ASD, Kochi|
|Year of Establishment||2003|
|Institute Type||Private (Deemed)|
|Affiliated to||Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (a deemed University)|
|Approved by||National Dental Commission|
|Hostel Facilities||Yes (Male and Female)|
|Entrance Exam||NEET UG Exam & NEET MDS Exam|
|Course||BDS & MDS|
|Category||Dental Colleges in Kerala|
|Contact||Address: AIMS Health Sciences Campus, AIMS Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682 041, India|
Email ID: email@example.com
Admission Helpline Number: 9667542500
Affiliation, Recognition, and Aid Status
Affiliated with: Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (a deemed university)
Approved by: National Dental Commission
Aid Status: Private
Amrita School of Dentistry has excellent facilities that provide students with a comprehensive learning experience. The college’s modern library, laboratories, lecture halls, clinical facilities, research facilities, hostel facilities, and sports facilities are designed to ensure that students get the best possible education and training in dentistry. Here are some of the facilities available at the college:
- Library: The college has a well-stocked library with a vast collection of books, journals, and other refeence materials related to dentistry.
- Laboratories: The college has well-equipped laboratories for all specializations of dentistry, including Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Orthodontics, Prosthodontics, and Pedodontics.
- Lecture Halls: The college has spacious and air-conditioned lecture halls that are equipped with audio-visual aids for effective learning.
- Clinical Facilities: The college has a modern dental hospital that provides students with hands-on training in treating patients with various dental problems.
- Hostel Facilities: The college has separate hostel facilities for male and female students, providing comfortable and secure accommodation for outstation students.
- Research Facilities: The college has a dedicated research and development wing that provides students and faculty members with the resources and support required for research activities.
- Sports Facilities: The college has a well-equipped sports complex that includes facilities for indoor and outdoor games, including badminton, basketball, football, and volleyball.
- Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics
- Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology
- Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
- Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology
- Department of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics
- Department of Periodontics
- Department of Prosthodontics & Implantology
- Department of Public Health Dentistry
Faculty and Staff
Amrita School of Dentistry has a highly qualified and experienced faculty and staff team that ensures that students receive quality education and training in dentistry. The college’s faculty members and clinical instructors have years of experience in teaching and research, while the administrative staff manages the college’s operations smoothly. The collective efforts of the faculty and staff make Amrita School of Dentistry a top dental college in India. Here are some details about the faculty and staff at Amrita School of Dentistry:
- Professors: The college has several senior faculty members who have extensive experience in teaching and research. They are involved in guiding students in research and other academic activities.
- Associate Professors: The associate professors at the college are experienced teachers and researchers who assist the senior faculty members in teaching and research activities.
- Assistant Professors: The assistant professors are young and dynamic teachers who help in imparting knowledge to the students and are involved in research activities.
- Lecturers: The college has a team of lecturers who help in conducting lectures and practical classes.
- Clinical Instructors: The clinical instructors at the college are experienced practitioners who guide students in treating patients at the dental hospital.
- Administrative Staff: The college has a dedicated administrative staff team that manages the day-to-day operations of the college, including admission procedures, student affairs, and financial management.
Courses Offered And Seat Intake
For Undergraduate Courses
|BDS||4 and ½ years + 1 Year Internship||60|
For Postgraduate courses
|Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology & Microbiology||3 Years||2|
|Public Health Dentistry||3 Years||2|
|Prosthodontics & Crown & Bridge||3 Years||5|
|Oral Medicine & Radiology||3 Years||5|
|Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery||3 Years||2|
|Oral Pathology & Microbiology||3 Years||2|
|Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopaedics||3 Years||3|
|Conservative & Endodontics||3 Years||5|
|Paediatric & Preventive Dentistry||3 Years||3|
|Oral Medicine & Radiology||1 Month|
|Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery||1 ½ Months|
|Prosthodontics||1 ½ Months|
|Conservative Dentistry||1 Month|
|Community Dentistry/Rural Services||15 days|
|Oral Pathology & Microbiology||1 Month|
BDS Course Syllabus
|1st Year||2nd Year||3 rd Year||4th Year|
|General Human Anatomy including Embryology and Histology||General Pathology and Microbiology||General Medicine||Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics|
|General Human Physiology and Biochemistry||General and Dental Pharmacology and Therapeutics||General Surgery||Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery|
|Dental Anatomy, Embryology and Oral Histology||Dental Materials||Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology||Oral Medicine and Radiology|
|–||Pre-clinical Prosthodontics||–||Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopaedics|
|–||Pre clinical Conservative Dentistry||–||Pediatric & Preventive Dentistry|
|–||–||–||Prosthodontics and Crown & Bridge|
|–||–||–||Public Health Dentistry|
For UG Courses
|Course||Tuition Fees (General)||Tuition Fees (NRI)||Special Fee||Hostel Fee|
|BDS||Rs. 5,00,000||USD 17,000||Rs. 1,28,525||Rs. 76,000|
For PG Courses
|Course||Tuition Fees (General)||Other Fee||Hostel Fee|
|Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology & Microbiology||Rs. 3,50,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Public Health Dentistry||Rs 4,50,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Prosthodontics & Crown & Bridge||Rs 12,60,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Oral Medicine & Radiology||Rs 5,60,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery||Rs 11,10,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Oral Pathology & Microbiology||Rs 3,50,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopaedics||Rs 12,60,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Periodontics||Rs 11,10,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Conservative & Endodontics||Rs 12,60,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
|Paediatric & Preventive Dentistry||Rs 12,60,000/-||Rs. 1,14,800||Rs. 62,000|
NOTE: The above-shared fees can vary from the actual fees and are subject to change. To know the exact fee structure, candidates can connect with a counseling expert at the Admission Helpline No. 9667542500.
BDS Eligibility Criteria
|Entrance Exam||NEET Exam|
|Nativity||Only Indian citizens are eligible for admission unless otherwise notified. OCI cardholders can apply for Non-Resident Indian or supernumerary seats, but not for seats reserved exclusively for Indian citizens.|
|Keralite||Candidates of Kerala origin are categorized as Keralite.|
Children of AIS officers (Non-Keralites) allotted to Kerala cadre are also considered Keralites but are not eligible for reservations or fee concessions.
|Non-Keralite Category I (NK I)||A candidate who is not of Kerala origin but fulfills any one of the following conditions will be categorized as ‘Non-Keralite Category I’ (NK I):|
Has undergone a qualifying course in Kerala and is the son/daughter of Non-Keralite parents belonging to Government of India/Defence Service, posted to Kerala.
Has undergone a qualifying course in Kerala and is the son/daughter of Non-Keralite parents who are serving/served Government of Kerala for a minimum period of two years.
Is not of Kerala origin but has been a resident of Kerala State for a period of 5 years within the period of 12 years of his/her study.
Is not of Kerala origin but has undergone school studies in Kerala from standard VIII to XII.
|Non-Keralite Category II (NK II)||Candidates who do not fall under ‘Keralite’ or ‘Non-Keralite Category I’ are categorized as ‘Non-Keralite Category II’ (NK II).|
NK II candidates are not eligible for admission to Medical/Dental courses in Government colleges.
|Special Cases||Fifteen percent of the seats for MBBS & BDS Courses in Self-Financing colleges in Kerala are set apart for candidates irrespective of their domicile based on the NEET-UG 2023 rank list prepared by the Commissioner for the Entrance Examinations.|
NK II candidates are not eligible for Communal/Special/Persons with Disabilities reservation or any fee concession.
|Nominees and All India Quota||Special provisions apply to candidates nominated by the Government of India, candidates from the Union Territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep Administration, Jammu & Kashmir, and candidates selected through All India quota seats for MBBS/BDS courses.|
|Qualification||The candidate must have passed from a recognised board/institute with a Class 12 credential or equivalent. In addition, the qualifying test should include biology, chemistry, English, and physics as core subjects.|
|Qualifying Marks||A minimum of 50% is required for the general category, 40% for SC/ST, and 45% for Physically disabled candidates.|
NEET UG Cut Off
|Category||Qualifying criteria||NEET Cutoff 2022||NEET Cutoff 2023|
|UR / EWS & PH||45th Percentile||116-105||136-121|
|OBC & PH||40th Percentile||104-93||120-107|
|SC & PH||40th Percentile||104-93||120-107|
|ST & PH||40th Percentile||104-93||120-108|
MDS Eligibility Criteria
|Academic Qualification||Must be an Indian National/Person of Indian Origin (PIO)|
|Possess a BDS degree from an approved Dental College in Kerala or recognized by the Government of India|
|Obtained registration from the Kerala State Dental Council after passing the final BDS examination with eligibility for full registration|
|Completed a one-year Compulsory Rotating Internship in an approved/recognized Dental College (exceptions apply)|
|Applicants who have completed or will complete one-year Compulsory Rotating Resident Internship (CRRI) by 30-06-2023 are eligible|
|Nativity||Indian Citizens of Kerala Origin|
|PIO/OCI candidates eligible for NRI seats only|
|Sons/daughters of Non-Keralite parents who obtained BDS degree from Kerala Dental Colleges (bond to serve as Senior Resident)|
|Age||No upper age limit for General Quota candidates|
|Upper age limit for MESQ Service Quota Candidates: 49 years with 10 years of service after course completion (as per Service Quota Rules)|
|Upper age limit for HSQ and IMSQ Service Quota Candidates: 47 years with 10 years of service after course completion (as per Service Quota Rules)|
|Qualifying Criteria||Qualify NEET MDS – 2023 conducted by the National Board of Examination, New Delhi|
|Obtain a minimum of the 50th percentile in NEET MDS 2023 for most candidates|
|SC, ST, SEBC, SC-PH, ST-PH, and SEBC-PH candidates: Minimum 40th percentile|
|General-PH candidates: Minimum 45th percentile|
NEET MDS Cut-Off 2023
|Categories||Cut off percentile 2023||Cutoff marks 2023|
Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi – Cut Off 2022 (AIQ Quota)
|Category||First Round||Second Round||Mop-up Round||Stray Vacancy Round|
|State Rank||AIR||Marks||State Rank||AIR||Marks||State Rank||AIR||Marks||State Rank||AIR||Marks|
MCC Counseling Registration
|1||Visit MCC Official Website||Go to the official MCC Counselling 2023|
|2||Find the Registration Link||Locate and click on the “Registration” or “New Registration” link on the homepage.|
|3||Read the Instructions||Carefully read and understand the provided instructions, guidelines, and eligibility criteria.|
|4||Fill in Personal Details||Enter accurate personal information: full name, date of birth, gender, contact number, email, etc.|
|5||NEET UG Details||Provide NEET UG exam details: roll number, application number, and exam year.|
|6||Generate Login Credentials||Create a unique username and strong password for future access to the counseling portal.|
|7||Payment of Registration Fee||Pay the prescribed fee using available online payment options. Follow provided payment instructions.|
|8||Verify and Submit||Review entered information, make corrections if needed, and submit the registration form.|
|9||Confirmation and Printout||Receive a confirmation message/email upon successful submission. Print or save as PDF for records.|
|10||Keep Registration Details Secure||Safely store registration number, login credentials, and payment receipt for future reference.|
MCC Counselling Fee
|15% AIQ/Central Universities||Rs. 1,000||Rs. 500|
|Deemed University||Rs. 5,000||Rs. 5,000|
Security Fee (Refundable)
|15% AIQ/Central Universities||Rs. 1,0000||Rs. 5,000|
|Deemed University||Rs. 2,00,000||Rs. 2,00,000|
MCC Counselling Process
MCC will be the conducting the counselling process for admission to Medical, Dental Colleges and Nursing Colleges for the AIQ, Central Institues, University, AIMS, JIPMER , Deemed universities, AMU, BHU and etc. The Counselling will be held in Four Rounds Namely Round 1, Round 2, Round 3 and additional Round known as Stray vacancy round which will be the last round for the counselling and admission. Here’re are some details about each round given below:
- Register for Main Counseling: Visit www.mcc.nic.in and register for Round-1 by paying a Non-Refundable Registration fee and Refundable Security Deposit.
- Choice Filling and Locking: Choose your preferred institutes and courses during the specified days and lock your choices.
- Seat Allotment Round-1: Based on your choices and merit, seats will be allotted in Round-1.
- Result Publication: The Round-1 result will be published on the MCC website.
- Upload Essential Certificates: After the result is declared, upload the necessary certificates as per the guidelines.
- Physical Reporting: If allotted a seat, physically report to the allocated Medical/Dental College with original documents. Those who want to upgrade to Round-2 must report with their original documents.
- Candidates Not Allotted in Round-1: If you weren’t allotted a seat in Round-1, no need to register again. You will automatically be considered for Round-2.
- Fresh Registration for Round-2: New candidates or those who didn’t register in Round-1 must register for Round-2 by paying the fees.
- Choice Filling and Locking: Fill new choices and lock them during the specified period.
- Seat Allotment Round-2: Seats will be allotted based on your choices and merit.
- Result Publication: The Round-2 result will be published on the MCC website.
- Upload Essential Certificates: After the Round-2 result is declared, upload the necessary certificates as per the guidelines.
- Physical Reporting: If allotted a seat in Round-2, physically report to the allocated Medical/Dental College. Upgraded candidates must take relieving from Round-1 seat and join Round-2 seat.
- Candidates Not Allotted in Previous Rounds: If you were not allotted a seat in Round-1 or Round-2, no need to register again. You will be considered for Round-3.
- Fresh Registration for Round-3: New candidates or those who didn’t register in Round-1 or Round-2 must register for Round-3 by paying the fees.
- Choice Filling and Locking: Fill new choices and lock them during the specified period.
- Seat Allotment Round-3: Seats will be allotted based on your choices and merit.
- Result Publication: The Round-3 result will be published on the MCC website.
- Upload Essential Certificates: After the Round-3 result is declared, upload the necessary certificates as per the guidelines.
- Physical Reporting: If allotted a seat in Round-3, physically report to the allocated Medical/Dental College.
FINAL STRAY VACANCY ROUND:
- Fresh Registrations: Candidates must register for the Final Stray Vacancy Round.
- Elimination: Candidates with allotted seats in other rounds will be eliminated from the Stray Vacancy Round.
- Stray Vacancy Round: The AIQ Stray Vacancy Round for vacant seats will be conducted online by MCC of DGHS, MoHFW.
- Seat Allotment: Seats will be allotted based on merit in the Stray Vacancy Round.
- Joining Allotted Seat: If allotted a seat in the Stray Round, the candidate must join the allocated seat/college. Failure to join will result in debarment from NEET examination for 01 year and forfeiture of fees.
(Note: Candidates can participate in Round-2 or Round-3 directly without fresh registration if they are not allotted a seat in the previous round. Upgraded candidates cannot claim their previous round seat.)
Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi
- Address: AIMS Health Sciences Campus, AIMS Ponekkara P. O., Kochi, Kerala 682 041, India
- Email ID: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Admission Helpline no: 9667542500
- Website: https://www.amrita.edu/
Ranking & Reputation
|Name of Institute||Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi|
For BDS Course
- Proof of Nativity
- Datasheet of the student (format attached)
- Allotment Memo of CEE Kerala
- Candidates Data Sheet CEE Kerala
- Admit card of NEET UG Entrance Exam
- Score card of NEET UG Entrance Exam
- 10th grade certificate to prove date of birth
- 12th grade pass certificate and statement of marks
- SC/ST/OEC Certificate (Non creamy layer/Income certificate)
- Income certificate in case of SC/ST/OEC students
- Community/Minority certificate from revenue authority if applicable
- Course and Conduct certificate
- Transfer Certificate (TC)
- Migration certificate
- Equivalency/Eligibility certificate (if applicable)
- Medical Fitness Certificate (format available in the CEE website)
- Passport size photo (05 Nos.) with Name and date of birth
- Stamp size photo (05 Nos.)
- Copy of Aadhaar card (Student)
- Copy of Pan card (Parent)
- Undertaking by the student countersigned by the parent on applicability of tuition fees.
For MDS Courses
- Printout of Acknowledgment Page
- Admit card of PG Dental (MDS) Entrance Examination, Kerala-2023 issued by CEE
- Allotment memo issued by the Commissioner for Entrance Examinations
- Date of Birth Proof: Secondary School Leaving Certificate / Senior Secondary Certificate / Indian Passport / Birth certificate
- Degree certificate of the qualifying examination (BDS Course)
- CRRI Certificate (House Surgency)
- Certificate of Eligibility/Equivalency certificate from Kerala University of Health Sciences, Thrissur for candidates who have passed the qualifying examination (BDS Degree) from approved universities outside of Kerala
- Registration certificate from Kerala Dental Council & up-to-date Renewal certificate
- Certificate from the concerned Principal if undergoing internship, confirming completion by 30/04/2023
- NEET MDS-2023 Score Sheet
- Originals of all the Uploaded documents/Certificates
- “Transfer Certificate” & Conduct Certificate from the institution last studied
- “Relieving Order” from the institution last worked for those in Government Service (Through the permission of Head of the Department)
- Admit card issued by NBE, New Delhi
- Any other documents mentioned in the allotment notification from CEE
For Service Candidates, there are additional documents:
- Declaration confirming they have not undergone a PG Dental course under Service Category (Annexure-X)
- Service Details from the Accountant General of Kerala
- Details of Service from the Head of the Department
NEET College Predictors
We understand the significance of choosing the right medical college for your bright future. Our website offers a variety of college predictors to ensure that you make informed decisions during the NEET counseling process.
With our NEET Score Predictor, input your NEET score, and instantly receive a personalized list of colleges where you have a higher chance of getting admitted. Our state-wise and category-based predictors further refine your options based on your preferences, giving you accurate and tailored results. we have offered you the top-of-the-class college predictors here’s the list of the college predictor for you;
- MBBS College Predictors
- BDS College Predictors
- MD College Predictors
- MS College Predictors
- MDS College Predictors
NEET Rank Predictors
NEET Rank Predictors are innovative tools designed to assist medical aspirants in estimating their All India Rank (AIR) in the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET). As one of the most competitive medical entrance exams in India, NEET plays a pivotal role in determining admission to undergraduate medical courses. NEET Rank Predictors empower students with insights into their performance, helping them set realistic goals and make informed decisions during the college selection process. Here’s the best ranks we’ve provided you with;
- MBBS Rank Predictors
- BDS Rank Predictors
- MD Rank Predictors
- MS Rank Predictors
- MDS Rank Predictors
Expert Admission Consultants
NEET Counselling takes pride in offering a team of highly experienced and dedicated Expert Admission Consultants who are committed to helping aspiring medical students achieve their dreams. Our consultants possess in-depth knowledge of the medical admission process and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. They are well-versed in the intricacies of NEET counselling, medical college admissions, and various state-specific admission procedures. Here’s how our Expert Admission Consultants can help you with various counselling process
- MBBS Admission Consultant
- BDS Admission Consultant
- MD Admission Consultant
- MS Admission Consultant
- MDS Admission Consultant
Frequently Asked Question
Q: What are the programs offered by the Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: Amrita School of Dentistry offers undergraduate (BDS) and postgraduate (MDS) programs in various specializations of dentistry. The college also offers a diploma program in dental mechanics.
Q: What is the duration of the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: The duration of the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry is five years, including one year of compulsory internship.
Q: What is the eligibility criteria for admission to the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: Candidates who have completed their 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as compulsory subjects and have secured a minimum of 50% marks are eligible to apply for the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry.
Q: How is the selection process for admission to the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: The selection process for admission to the BDS program at Amrita School of Dentistry is based on the scores obtained in the NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) exam conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA).
Q: Does Amrita School of Dentistry have its own dental hospital?
A: Yes, Amrita School of Dentistry has its own dental hospital with state-of-the-art facilities. The hospital provides dental care services to the community and serves as a teaching hospital for the students.
Q: What kind of research activities are undertaken by Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: Amrita School of Dentistry has a dedicated research department that undertakes research activities in various fields of dentistry. The college has collaborations with national and international institutions for research projects.
Q: What kind of clinical exposure do students get at Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: Amrita School of Dentistry provides its students with extensive clinical exposure through its well-equipped dental hospital. The students get hands-on experience in treating patients under the guidance of experienced faculty members.
Q: What kind of extracurricular activities are available for students at Amrita School of Dentistry?
A: Amrita School of Dentistry provides its students with opportunities to participate in various extracurricular activities like sports, cultural events, and community service programs. The college has various student clubs and associations that organize events and activities throughout the year.